# LinearRunOnce

## Contents

# LinearRunOnce¶

The simplest linear solver in OpenMDAO is LinearRunOnce, which sequentially calls `apply_linear`

and `solve_linear`

once on each subsystem. It is directly analogous to applying a single pass of the
chain rule to the whole system without any iteration at the top level. This linear solver can only be
used in systems where the following conditions are satisfied:

System does not contain a cycle, though subsystems may.

System does not contain any implicit states, though subsystems may.

However, subsystems can contain cycles or implicit states, provided that they are using the appropriate solver such as ScipyKrylov.

Here is an example of using LinearRunOnce to calculate the derivatives across a simple model with
the `Paraboloid`

component.

`Paraboloid`

class definition

```
class Paraboloid(om.ExplicitComponent):
"""
Evaluates the equation f(x,y) = (x-3)^2 + xy + (y+4)^2 - 3.
"""
def setup(self):
self.add_input('x', val=0.0)
self.add_input('y', val=0.0)
self.add_output('f_xy', val=0.0)
def setup_partials(self):
self.declare_partials('*', '*')
def compute(self, inputs, outputs):
"""
f(x,y) = (x-3)^2 + xy + (y+4)^2 - 3
Optimal solution (minimum): x = 6.6667; y = -7.3333
"""
x = inputs['x']
y = inputs['y']
outputs['f_xy'] = (x-3.0)**2 + x*y + (y+4.0)**2 - 3.0
def compute_partials(self, inputs, partials):
"""
Jacobian for our paraboloid.
"""
x = inputs['x']
y = inputs['y']
partials['f_xy', 'x'] = 2.0*x - 6.0 + y
partials['f_xy', 'y'] = 2.0*y + 8.0 + x
```

```
import openmdao.api as om
from openmdao.test_suite.components.paraboloid import Paraboloid
prob = om.Problem()
model = prob.model
model.add_subsystem('comp', Paraboloid(), promotes=['x', 'y', 'f_xy'])
model.linear_solver = om.LinearRunOnce()
prob.setup(check=False, mode='fwd')
prob.set_val('x', 0.0)
prob.set_val('y', 0.0)
prob.run_model()
of = ['f_xy']
wrt = ['x', 'y']
derivs = prob.compute_totals(of=of, wrt=wrt, return_format='dict')
print(derivs['f_xy']['x'], [[-6.0]])
print(derivs['f_xy']['y'], [[8.0]])
```

```
[[-6.]] [[-6.0]]
[[8.]] [[8.0]]
```

## LinearRunOnce Options¶

Option | Default | Acceptable Values | Acceptable Types | Description |
---|---|---|---|---|

aitken_initial_factor | 1 | N/A | N/A | initial value for Aitken relaxation factor |

aitken_max_factor | 1.5 | N/A | N/A | upper limit for Aitken relaxation factor |

aitken_min_factor | 0.1 | N/A | N/A | lower limit for Aitken relaxation factor |

assemble_jac | 0 | [True, False] | ['bool'] | Activates use of assembled jacobian by this solver. |

iprint | 1 | N/A | ['int'] | whether to print output |

use_aitken | 0 | [True, False] | ['bool'] | set to True to use Aitken relaxation |

## LinearRunOnce Constructor¶

The call signature for the `LinearRunOnce`

constructor is:

`LinearRunOnce.`

`__init__`

(**kwargs)Initialize all attributes.