# cs_safe.py

# cs_safe.py¶

collection of complex-step safe functions to replace standard numpy operations.

`openmdao.utils.cs_safe.`

`abs`

(x)[source]Complex-step safe version of numpy.abs function.

- Parameters

xndarrayArray value to be computed on.

- Returns

- ndarray
Absolute value.

`openmdao.utils.cs_safe.`

`arctan2`

(y,x)[source]Numpy-compatible, complex-compatible arctan2 function for use with complex-step.

- Parameters

yfloat or complexThe length of the side opposite the angle being determined.

xfloat or complexThe length of the side adjacent to the angle being determined.

- Returns

- ndarray
The angle whose opposite side has length y and whose adjacent side has length x.

`openmdao.utils.cs_safe.`

`norm`

(x,axis=None)[source]Complex-step safe version of numpy.linalg.norm function.

- Parameters

xndarrayArray value to be computed on.

axisNone or intAxis to perform the norm up to.

- Returns

- ndarray
Matrix or vector norm.