# Building a Variable Plugin¶

Sometimes it’s necessary to create a new type of variable that can be passed between OpenMDAO components. This section describes how to do this using a pure Python OpenMDAO plugin.

Let’s assume we want to have a variable that represents a set of Cartesian coordinates, with the value of the variable being a 3-tuple of floating point values representing the x, y, and z position.

As before when we created a component plugin, we’ll use plugin quickstart to generate the directory structure for our distribution, but this time we use the -g option to specify the plugin group as openmdao.variable. Also, this time around we’ll specify a class name of Coordinates using the -c option.

plugin quickstart coord -c Coordinates -g openmdao.variable

Since we said our distribution name is going to be coord, that means that plugin quickstart created a skeleton of our plugin class definition in the src/coord/coord.py file. After editing that file, it looks like this:

from openmdao.main.variable import Variable

class Coordinates(Variable):

def __init__(self, default_value = (0.,0.,0.), **metadata):
super(Coordinates, self).__init__(default_value=default_value,

def validate(self, object, name, value):
if isinstance(value, tuple) and len(value) == 3 and \
all([isinstance(val,(float,int)) for val in value]):
return value
else:
self.error(object, name, value)


OpenMDAO provides a base class for framework visible inputs and outputs called Variable, so that’s the base class for our coordinates variable. If a Component object contains a Variable instance that has a metadata attribute named iotype then that instance object is exposed to the framework as a variable whose value can be passed between components. Valid values for iotype are 'in' and 'out'.

One thing that can be a little confusing to people first using Variables is that the Variable object itself is just a validator and possibly a converter. The object that actually gets passed around between components is the value that the variable corresponds to and not the variable itself. For example, if we had a component named wheel that contained one of our Coordinates variables named center_location, then the value of wheel.center_location would be a 3-tuple, not a Coordinates object.

We override the base class constructor so we can supply a default value of (0.,0.,0.) if the caller doesn’t supply one. After that, the only function we need to supply is the validate function, which will be called with the following arguments:

object
The object that contains the value of our coordinates variable
name
The name of our coordinates variable
value
The value that our current value is being replaced with

Our validate function should test that the value we’ve been called with is valid. In this particular case, we just need to verify that the value is a 3-tuple and it has float or int entries. If the value is acceptable, then we just return it. We don’t need to do it in this case, but in other custom traits, we could convert the value before returning it. If the value is not acceptable, then we call the error function, which will raise an exception, typically a ValueError or a TypeError depending on the nature of the error.

That’s all of the source code required to make our Coordinates variable functional. As in the earlier section, where we made a component plugin, we need to specify the metadata for our distribution by editing the setup.cfg file and add any extra documentation that we want to the docs/usage.rst file and the README.txt file. When that’s done, as before, we run plugin makedist; the end result should be a source distribution named coord-0.1.tar.gz. The version id of our plugin defaulted to 0.1 because we didn’t specify it when we ran plugin quickstart.

# Building a Driver Plugin¶

Drivers are Components that have some extra API functions to let them deal with iterating over workflows, handling design variables, etc. Driver plugins are built and distributed in the same way as component plugins, so we can use the plugin quickstart command to create a starting directory structure for our plugin:

plugin quickstart mydriver -c MyDriver -g openmdao.driver

By settng the -g option to openmdao.driver, we tell plugin quickstart to generate a source file containing a Driver class. The rest of the plugin development process is the same as described in the Building a Component Plugin section.