exec_comp_for_test.py¶

class
openmdao.test_suite.components.exec_comp_for_test.
ExecComp4Test
(exprs, nl_delay=0.01, lin_delay=0.01, req_procs=1, 1, fail_rank= 1, fails=(), fail_hard=False, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
openmdao.components.exec_comp.ExecComp
A version of ExecComp for benchmarking and testing.
 Parameters
 exprsstr or list of str
The expressions that determine the inputs and outputs of this component.
 nl_delayfloat(0.01)
The sleep time in seconds that will occur when solve_nonlinear is called.
 lin_delayfloat(0.01)
The sleep time in seconds that will occur when apply_linear is called.
 rec_procstuple of the form (minprocs, maxprocs)
Minimum and maximun MPI processes usable by this component.
 fail_rankint or collection of int (0)
Rank (if running under MPI) or worker number (if running under multiprocessing) where failures will be initiated.
 failslist or tuple of int
If the current self.num_nl_solves matches any of these, then this component will raise an exception.
 fail_hardbool(False)
If True and fails is not empty, this component will raise a RuntimeError when a failure is induced. Otherwise, an AnalysisError will be raised.

__init__
(exprs, nl_delay=0.01, lin_delay=0.01, req_procs=1, 1, fail_rank= 1, fails=(), fail_hard=False, **kwargs)[source]¶ Create a <Component> using only an expression string.
Given a list of assignment statements, this component creates input and output variables at construction time. All variables appearing on the lefthand side of an assignment are outputs, and the rest are inputs. Each variable is assumed to be of type float unless the initial value for that variable is supplied in **kwargs. Derivatives are calculated using complex step.
The following functions are available for use in expressions:
Function
Description
abs(x)
Absolute value of x
acos(x)
Inverse cosine of x
acosh(x)
Inverse hyperbolic cosine of x
arange(start, stop, step)
Array creation
arccos(x)
Inverse cosine of x
arccosh(x)
Inverse hyperbolic cosine of x
arcsin(x)
Inverse sine of x
arcsinh(x)
Inverse hyperbolic sine of x
arctan(x)
Inverse tangent of x
asin(x)
Inverse sine of x
asinh(x)
Inverse hyperbolic sine of x
atan(x)
Inverse tangent of x
cos(x)
Cosine of x
cosh(x)
Hyperbolic cosine of x
dot(x, y)
Dot product of x and y
e
Euler’s number
erf(x)
Error function
erfc(x)
Complementary error function
exp(x)
Exponential function
expm1(x)
exp(x)  1
factorial(x)
Factorial of all numbers in x (DEPRECATED, not available with SciPy >=1.5)
fmax(x, y)
Elementwise maximum of x and y
fmin(x, y)
Elementwise minimum of x and y
inner(x, y)
Inner product of arrays x and y
isinf(x)
Elementwise detection of np.inf
isnan(x)
Elementwise detection of np.nan
kron(x, y)
Kronecker product of arrays x and y
linspace(x, y, N)
Numpy linear spaced array creation
log(x)
Natural logarithm of x
log10(x)
Base10 logarithm of x
log1p(x)
log(1+x)
matmul(x, y)
Matrix multiplication of x and y
maximum(x, y)
Elementwise maximum of x and y
minimum(x, y)
Elementwise minimum of x and y
ones(N)
Create an array of ones
outer(x, y)
Outer product of x and y
pi
Pi
power(x, y)
Elementwise x**y
prod(x)
The product of all elements in x
sin(x)
Sine of x
sinh(x)
Hyperbolic sine of x
sum(x)
The sum of all elements in x
tan(x)
Tangent of x
tanh(x)
Hyperbolic tangent of x
tensordot(x, y)
Tensor dot product of x and y
zeros(N)
Create an array of zeros
 Parameters
 exprsstr, tuple of str or list of str
An assignment statement or iter of them. These express how the outputs are calculated based on the inputs. In addition to standard Python operators, a subset of numpy and scipy functions is supported.
 **kwargsdict of named args
Initial values of variables can be set by setting a named arg with the var name. If the value is a dict it is assumed to contain metadata. To set the initial value in addition to other metadata, assign the initial value to the ‘value’ entry of the dict.
Notes
If a variable has an initial value that is anything other than 1.0, either because it has a different type than float or just because its initial value is != 1.0, you must use a keyword arg to set the initial value. For example, let’s say we have an ExecComp that takes an array ‘x’ as input and outputs a float variable ‘y’ which is the sum of the entries in ‘x’.
import numpy import openmdao.api as om excomp = om.ExecComp('y=sum(x)', x=numpy.ones(10,dtype=float))
In this example, ‘y’ would be assumed to be the default type of float and would be given the default initial value of 1.0, while ‘x’ would be initialized with a size 10 float array of ones.
If you want to assign certain metadata for ‘x’ in addition to its initial value, you can do it as follows:
excomp = ExecComp('y=sum(x)', x={'value': numpy.ones(10,dtype=float), 'units': 'ft'})

abs_name_iter
(iotype, local=True, cont=True, discrete=False)¶ Iterate over absolute variable names for this System.
By setting appropriate values for ‘cont’ and ‘discrete’, yielded variable names can be continuous only, discrete only, or both.
 Parameters
 iotypestr
Either ‘input’ or ‘output’.
 localbool
If True, include only names of local variables. Default is True.
 contbool
If True, include names of continuous variables. Default is True.
 discretebool
If True, include names of discrete variables. Default is False.

add_constraint
(name, lower=None, upper=None, equals=None, ref=None, ref0=None, adder=None, scaler=None, units=None, indices=None, linear=False, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)¶ Add a constraint variable to this system.
 Parameters
 namestring
Name of the response variable in the system.
 lowerfloat or ndarray, optional
Lower boundary for the variable
 upperfloat or ndarray, optional
Upper boundary for the variable
 equalsfloat or ndarray, optional
Equality constraint value for the variable
 reffloat or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.
 ref0float or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.
 adderfloat or ndarray, optional
Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 scalerfloat or ndarray, optional
value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 unitsstr, optional
Units to convert to before applying scaling.
 indicessequence of int, optional
If variable is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular response. These may be positive or negative integers.
 linearbool
Set to True if constraint is linear. Default is False.
 parallel_deriv_colorstring
If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.
 vectorize_derivsbool
If True, vectorize derivative calculations.
 cache_linear_solutionbool
If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.
Notes
The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument
ref0
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argumentref
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1. The arguments (lower
,upper
,equals
) can not be strings or variable names.

add_design_var
(name, lower=None, upper=None, ref=None, ref0=None, indices=None, adder=None, scaler=None, units=None, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)¶ Add a design variable to this system.
 Parameters
 namestring
Name of the design variable in the system.
 lowerfloat or ndarray, optional
Lower boundary for the input
 upperupper or ndarray, optional
Upper boundary for the input
 reffloat or ndarray, optional
Value of design var that scales to 1.0 in the driver.
 ref0float or ndarray, optional
Value of design var that scales to 0.0 in the driver.
 indicesiter of int, optional
If an input is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular design variable. These may be positive or negative integers.
 unitsstr, optional
Units to convert to before applying scaling.
 adderfloat or ndarray, optional
Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 scalerfloat or ndarray, optional
value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 parallel_deriv_colorstring
If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.
 vectorize_derivsbool
If True, vectorize derivative calculations.
 cache_linear_solutionbool
If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.
Notes
The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument
ref0
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argumentref
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1.

add_discrete_input
(name, val, desc='', tags=None)¶ Add a discrete input variable to the component.
 Parameters
 namestr
name of the variable in this component’s namespace.
 vala picklable object
The initial value of the variable being added.
 descstr
description of the variable
 tagsstr or list of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed when calling list_inputs and list_outputs.
 Returns
 dict
metadata for added variable

add_discrete_output
(name, val, desc='', tags=None)¶ Add an output variable to the component.
 Parameters
 namestr
name of the variable in this component’s namespace.
 vala picklable object
The initial value of the variable being added.
 descstr
description of the variable.
 tagsstr or list of strs or set of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed when calling list_inputs and list_outputs.
 Returns
 dict
metadata for added variable

add_input
(name, val=1.0, shape=None, src_indices=None, flat_src_indices=None, units=None, desc='', tags=None, shape_by_conn=False, copy_shape=None)¶ Add an input variable to the component.
 Parameters
 namestr
name of the variable in this component’s namespace.
 valfloat or list or tuple or ndarray or Iterable
The initial value of the variable being added in userdefined units. Default is 1.0.
 shapeint or tuple or list or None
Shape of this variable, only required if src_indices not provided and val is not an array. Default is None.
 src_indicesint or list of ints or tuple of ints or int ndarray or Iterable or None
The global indices of the source variable to transfer data from. A value of None implies this input depends on all entries of source. Default is None. The shapes of the target and src_indices must match, and form of the entries within is determined by the value of ‘flat_src_indices’.
 flat_src_indicesbool
If True, each entry of src_indices is assumed to be an index into the flattened source. Otherwise each entry must be a tuple or list of size equal to the number of dimensions of the source.
 unitsstr or None
Units in which this input variable will be provided to the component during execution. Default is None, which means it is unitless.
 descstr
description of the variable
 tagsstr or list of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed when calling list_inputs and list_outputs.
 shape_by_connbool
If True, shape this input to match its connected output.
 copy_shapestr or None
If a str, that str is the name of a variable. Shape this input to match that of the named variable.
 Returns
 dict
metadata for added variable

add_objective
(name, ref=None, ref0=None, index=None, units=None, adder=None, scaler=None, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)¶ Add a response variable to this system.
 Parameters
 namestring
Name of the response variable in the system.
 reffloat or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.
 ref0float or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.
 indexint, optional
If variable is an array, this indicates which entry is of interest for this particular response. This may be a positive or negative integer.
 unitsstr, optional
Units to convert to before applying scaling.
 adderfloat or ndarray, optional
Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 scalerfloat or ndarray, optional
value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 parallel_deriv_colorstring
If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.
 vectorize_derivsbool
If True, vectorize derivative calculations.
 cache_linear_solutionbool
If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.
Notes
The objective can be scaled using scaler and adder, where
\[x_{scaled} = scaler(x + adder)\]or through the use of ref/ref0, which map to scaler and adder through the equations:
\[ \begin{align}\begin{aligned}0 = scaler(ref_0 + adder)\\1 = scaler(ref + adder)\end{aligned}\end{align} \]which results in:
\[ \begin{align}\begin{aligned}adder = ref_0\\scaler = \frac{1}{ref + adder}\end{aligned}\end{align} \]

add_output
(name, val=1.0, shape=None, units=None, res_units=None, desc='', lower=None, upper=None, ref=1.0, ref0=0.0, res_ref=None, tags=None, shape_by_conn=False, copy_shape=None)¶ Add an output variable to the component.
For ExplicitComponent, res_ref defaults to the value in res unless otherwise specified.
 Parameters
 namestr
name of the variable in this component’s namespace.
 valfloat or list or tuple or ndarray
The initial value of the variable being added in userdefined units. Default is 1.0.
 shapeint or tuple or list or None
Shape of this variable, only required if val is not an array. Default is None.
 unitsstr or None
Units in which the output variables will be provided to the component during execution. Default is None, which means it has no units.
 res_unitsstr or None
Units in which the residuals of this output will be given to the user when requested. Default is None, which means it has no units.
 descstr
description of the variable.
 lowerfloat or list or tuple or ndarray or None
lower bound(s) in userdefined units. It can be (1) a float, (2) an array_like consistent with the shape arg (if given), or (3) an array_like matching the shape of val, if val is array_like. A value of None means this output has no lower bound. Default is None.
 upperfloat or list or tuple or ndarray or None
upper bound(s) in userdefined units. It can be (1) a float, (2) an array_like consistent with the shape arg (if given), or (3) an array_like matching the shape of val, if val is array_like. A value of None means this output has no upper bound. Default is None.
 reffloat
Scaling parameter. The value in the userdefined units of this output variable when the scaled value is 1. Default is 1.
 ref0float
Scaling parameter. The value in the userdefined units of this output variable when the scaled value is 0. Default is 0.
 res_reffloat
Scaling parameter. The value in the userdefined res_units of this output’s residual when the scaled value is 1. Default is None, which means residual scaling matches output scaling.
 tagsstr or list of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed when calling list_inputs and list_outputs and also when listing results from case recorders.
 shape_by_connbool
If True, shape this output to match its connected input(s).
 copy_shapestr or None
If a str, that str is the name of a variable. Shape this output to match that of the named variable.
 Returns
 dict
metadata for added variable

add_recorder
(recorder, recurse=False)¶ Add a recorder to the system.
 Parameters
 recorder<CaseRecorder>
A recorder instance.
 recurseboolean
Flag indicating if the recorder should be added to all the subsystems.

add_response
(name, type_, lower=None, upper=None, equals=None, ref=None, ref0=None, indices=None, index=None, units=None, adder=None, scaler=None, linear=False, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)¶ Add a response variable to this system.
The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument
ref0
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argumentref
represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1. Parameters
 namestring
Name of the response variable in the system.
 type_string
The type of response. Supported values are ‘con’ and ‘obj’
 lowerfloat or ndarray, optional
Lower boundary for the variable
 upperupper or ndarray, optional
Upper boundary for the variable
 equalsequals or ndarray, optional
Equality constraint value for the variable
 reffloat or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.
 ref0upper or ndarray, optional
Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.
 indicessequence of int, optional
If variable is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular response.
 indexint, optional
If variable is an array, this indicates which entry is of interest for this particular response.
 unitsstr, optional
Units to convert to before applying scaling.
 adderfloat or ndarray, optional
Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 scalerfloat or ndarray, optional
value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.
 linearbool
Set to True if constraint is linear. Default is False.
 parallel_deriv_colorstring
If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.
 vectorize_derivsbool
If True, vectorize derivative calculations.
 cache_linear_solutionbool
If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.

check_config
(logger)¶ Perform optional error checks.
 Parameters
 loggerobject
The object that manages logging output.

cleanup
()¶ Clean up resources prior to exit.

compute
(inputs, outputs)[source]¶ Execute this component’s assignment statements.
 Parameters
 inputsVector
Vector containing inputs.
 outputsVector
Vector containing outputs.

compute_jacvec_product
(inputs, d_inputs, d_outputs, mode, discrete_inputs=None)¶ Compute jacvector product. The model is assumed to be in an unscaled state.
 If mode is:
‘fwd’: d_inputs > d_outputs
‘rev’: d_outputs > d_inputs
 Parameters
 inputsVector
unscaled, dimensional input variables read via inputs[key]
 d_inputsVector
see inputs; product must be computed only if var_name in d_inputs
 d_outputsVector
see outputs; product must be computed only if var_name in d_outputs
 modestr
either ‘fwd’ or ‘rev’
 discrete_inputsdict or None
If not None, dict containing discrete input values.

compute_partials
(inputs, partials)[source]¶ Use complex step method to update the given Jacobian.
 Parameters
 inputsVector
Vector containing parameters. (p)
 partialsJacobian
Contains subjacobians.

convert2units
(name, val, units)¶ Convert the given value to the specified units.
 Parameters
 namestr
Name of the variable.
 valfloat or ndarray of float
The value of the variable.
 unitsstr
The units to convert to.
 Returns
 float or ndarray of float
The value converted to the specified units.

convert_from_units
(name, val, units)¶ Convert the given value from the specified units to those of the named variable.
 Parameters
 namestr
Name of the variable.
 valfloat or ndarray of float
The value of the variable.
 unitsstr
The units to convert to.
 Returns
 float or ndarray of float
The value converted to the specified units.

convert_units
(name, val, units_from, units_to)¶ Wrap the utility convert_units and give a good error message.
 Parameters
 namestr
Name of the variable.
 valfloat or ndarray of float
The value of the variable.
 units_fromstr
The units to convert from.
 units_tostr
The units to convert to.
 Returns
 float or ndarray of float
The value converted to the specified units.

declare_coloring
(wrt='*', method='fd', form=None, step=None, per_instance=True, num_full_jacs=3, tol=1e25, orders=None, perturb_size=1e09, min_improve_pct=5.0, show_summary=True, show_sparsity=False)¶ Set options for deriv coloring of a set of wrt vars matching the given pattern(s).
 Parameters
 wrtstr or list of str
The name or names of the variables that derivatives are taken with respect to. This can contain input names, output names, or glob patterns.
 methodstr
Method used to compute derivative: “fd” for finite difference, “cs” for complex step.
 formstr
Finite difference form, can be “forward”, “central”, or “backward”. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.
 stepfloat
Step size for finite difference. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.
 per_instancebool
If True, a separate coloring will be generated for each instance of a given class. Otherwise, only one coloring for a given class will be generated and all instances of that class will use it.
 num_full_jacsint
Number of times to repeat partial jacobian computation when computing sparsity.
 tolfloat
Tolerance used to determine if an array entry is nonzero during sparsity determination.
 ordersint
Number of orders above and below the tolerance to check during the tolerance sweep.
 perturb_sizefloat
Size of input/output perturbation during generation of sparsity.
 min_improve_pctfloat
If coloring does not improve (decrease) the number of solves more than the given percentage, coloring will not be used.
 show_summarybool
If True, display summary information after generating coloring.
 show_sparsitybool
If True, display sparsity with coloring info after generating coloring.

declare_partials
(of, wrt, dependent=True, rows=None, cols=None, val=None, method='exact', step=None, form=None, step_calc=None)¶ Declare information about this component’s subjacobians.
 Parameters
 ofstr or list of str
The name of the residual(s) that derivatives are being computed for. May also contain a glob pattern.
 wrtstr or list of str
The name of the variables that derivatives are taken with respect to. This can contain the name of any input or output variable. May also contain a glob pattern.
 dependentbool(True)
If False, specifies no dependence between the output(s) and the input(s). This is only necessary in the case of a sparse global jacobian, because if ‘dependent=False’ is not specified and declare_partials is not called for a given pair, then a dense matrix of zeros will be allocated in the sparse global jacobian for that pair. In the case of a dense global jacobian it doesn’t matter because the space for a dense subjac will always be allocated for every pair.
 rowsndarray of int or None
Row indices for each nonzero entry. For sparse subjacobians only.
 colsndarray of int or None
Column indices for each nonzero entry. For sparse subjacobians only.
 valfloat or ndarray of float or scipy.sparse
Value of subjacobian. If rows and cols are not None, this will contain the values found at each (row, col) location in the subjac.
 methodstr
The type of approximation that should be used. Valid options include: ‘fd’: Finite Difference, ‘cs’: Complex Step, ‘exact’: use the component defined analytic derivatives. Default is ‘exact’.
 stepfloat
Step size for approximation. Defaults to None, in which case the approximation method provides its default value.
 formstring
Form for finite difference, can be ‘forward’, ‘backward’, or ‘central’. Defaults to None, in which case the approximation method provides its default value.
 step_calcstring
Step type for finite difference, can be ‘abs’ for absolute’, or ‘rel’ for relative. Defaults to None, in which case the approximation method provides its default value.
 Returns
 dict
Metadata dict for the specified partial(s).

get_approx_coloring_fname
()¶ Return the full pathname to a coloring file.
 Parameters
 systemSystem
The System having its coloring saved or loaded.
 Returns
 str
Full pathname of the coloring file.

get_constraints
(recurse=True)¶ Get the Constraint settings from this system.
Retrieve the constraint settings for the current system as a dict, keyed by variable name.
 Parameters
 recursebool, optional
If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all constraints relative to the this system.
 Returns
 dict
The constraints defined in the current system.

get_design_vars
(recurse=True, get_sizes=True, use_prom_ivc=True)¶ Get the DesignVariable settings from this system.
Retrieve all design variable settings from the system and, if recurse is True, all of its subsystems.
 Parameters
 recursebool
If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all design vars relative to the this system.
 get_sizesbool, optional
If True, compute the size of each design variable.
 use_prom_ivcbool
Translate auto_ivc_names to their promoted input names.
 Returns
 dict
The design variables defined in the current system and, if recurse=True, its subsystems.

get_io_metadata
(iotypes='input', 'output', metadata_keys=None, includes=None, excludes=None, tags=(), get_remote=False, rank=None, return_rel_names=True)¶ Retrieve metdata for a filtered list of variables.
 Parameters
 iotypesstr or iter of str
Will contain either ‘input’, ‘output’, or both. Defaults to both.
 metadata_keysiter of str or None
Names of metadata entries to be retrieved or None, meaning retrieve all available ‘allprocs’ metadata. If ‘values’ or ‘src_indices’ are required, their keys must be provided explicitly since they are not found in the ‘allprocs’ metadata and must be retrieved from local metadata located in each process.
 includesstr, iter of str or None
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to include. Default is None, which includes all variables.
 excludesstr, iter of str or None
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to exclude. Default is None.
 tagsstr or iter of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed. Only inputs with the given tags will be listed. Default is None, which means there will be no filtering based on tags.
 get_remotebool
If True, retrieve variables from other MPI processes as well.
 rankint or None
If None, and get_remote is True, retrieve values from all MPI process to all other MPI processes. Otherwise, if get_remote is True, retrieve values from all MPI processes only to the specified rank.
 return_rel_namesbool
If True, the names returned will be relative to the scope of this System. Otherwise they will be absolute names.
 Returns
 dict
A dict of metadata keyed on name, where name is either absolute or relative based on the value of the return_rel_names arg, and metadata is a dict containing entries based on the value of the metadata_keys arg. Every metadata dict will always contain two entries, ‘promoted_name’ and ‘discrete’, to indicate a given variable’s promoted name and whether or not it is discrete.

get_linear_vectors
(vec_name='linear')¶ Return the linear inputs, outputs, and residuals vectors.
 Parameters
 vec_namestr
Name of the linear righthandside vector. The default is ‘linear’.
 Returns
 (inputs, outputs, residuals)tuple of <Vector> instances
Yields the inputs, outputs, and residuals linear vectors for vec_name.

get_nonlinear_vectors
()¶ Return the inputs, outputs, and residuals vectors.
 Returns
 (inputs, outputs, residuals)tuple of <Vector> instances
Yields the inputs, outputs, and residuals nonlinear vectors.

get_objectives
(recurse=True)¶ Get the Objective settings from this system.
Retrieve all objectives settings from the system as a dict, keyed by variable name.
 Parameters
 recursebool, optional
If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all objective relative to the this system.
 Returns
 dict
The objectives defined in the current system.

get_relevant_vars
(desvars, responses, mode)¶ Find all relevant vars between desvars and responses.
Both vars are assumed to be outputs (either design vars or responses).
 Parameters
 desvarslist of str
Names of design variables.
 responseslist of str
Names of response variables.
 modestr
Direction of derivatives, either ‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.
 Returns
 dict
Dict of ({‘outputs’: dep_outputs, ‘inputs’: dep_inputs, dep_systems) keyed by design vars and responses.

get_responses
(recurse=True, get_sizes=True, use_prom_ivc=False)¶ Get the response variable settings from this system.
Retrieve all response variable settings from the system as a dict, keyed by variable name.
 Parameters
 recursebool, optional
If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all responses relative to the this system.
 get_sizesbool, optional
If True, compute the size of each response.
 use_prom_ivcbool
Translate auto_ivc_names to their promoted input names.
 Returns
 dict
The responses defined in the current system and, if recurse=True, its subsystems.

get_source
(name)¶ Return the source variable connected to the given named variable.
The name can be a promoted name or an absolute name. If the given variable is an input, the absolute name of the connected source will be returned. If the given variable itself is a source, its own absolute name will be returned.
 Parameters
 namestr
Absolute or promoted name of the variable.
 Returns
 str
The absolute name of the source variable.

get_val
(name, units=None, indices=None, get_remote=False, rank=None, vec_name='nonlinear', kind=None, flat=False, from_src=True)¶ Get an output/input/residual variable.
Function is used if you want to specify display units.
 Parameters
 namestr
Promoted or relative variable name in the root system’s namespace.
 unitsstr, optional
Units to convert to before return.
 indicesint or list of ints or tuple of ints or int ndarray or Iterable or None, optional
Indices or slice to return.
 get_remotebool or None
If True, retrieve the value even if it is on a remote process. Note that if the variable is remote on ANY process, this function must be called on EVERY process in the Problem’s MPI communicator. If False, only retrieve the value if it is on the current process, or only the part of the value that’s on the current process for a distributed variable. If None and the variable is remote or distributed, a RuntimeError will be raised.
 rankint or None
If not None, only gather the value to this rank.
 vec_namestr
Name of the vector to use. Defaults to ‘nonlinear’.
 kindstr or None
Kind of variable (‘input’, ‘output’, or ‘residual’). If None, returned value will be either an input or output.
 flatbool
If True, return the flattened version of the value.
 from_srcbool
If True, retrieve value of an input variable from its connected source.
 Returns
 object
The value of the requested output/input variable.

get_var_meta
(name, key)¶ Get metadata for a variable.
 Parameters
 namestr
Variable name (promoted, relative, or absolute) in the root system’s namespace.
 keystr
Key into the metadata dict for the given variable.
 Returns
 object
The value stored under key in the metadata dictionary for the named variable.

initialize
()¶ Declare options.

is_active
()¶ Determine if the system is active on this rank.
 Returns
 bool
If running under MPI, returns True if this System has a valid communicator. Always returns True if not running under MPI.

property
linear_solver
¶ Get the linear solver for this system.

list_inputs
(values=True, prom_name=False, units=False, shape=False, global_shape=False, desc=False, hierarchical=True, print_arrays=False, tags=None, includes=None, excludes=None, all_procs=False, out_stream=DEFAULT_OUT_STREAM)¶ Write a list of input names and other optional information to a specified stream.
 Parameters
 valuesbool, optional
When True, display/return input values. Default is True.
 prom_namebool, optional
When True, display/return the promoted name of the variable. Default is False.
 unitsbool, optional
When True, display/return units. Default is False.
 shapebool, optional
When True, display/return the shape of the value. Default is False.
 global_shapebool, optional
When True, display/return the global shape of the value. Default is False.
 descbool, optional
When True, display/return description. Default is False.
 hierarchicalbool, optional
When True, human readable output shows variables in hierarchical format.
 print_arraysbool, optional
When False, in the columnar display, just display norm of any ndarrays with size > 1. The norm is surrounded by vertical bars to indicate that it is a norm. When True, also display full values of the ndarray below the row. Format is affected by the values set with numpy.set_printoptions Default is False.
 tagsstr or list of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed. Only inputs with the given tags will be listed. Default is None, which means there will be no filtering based on tags.
 includesNone or iter of str
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to include. Default is None, which includes all input variables.
 excludesNone or iter of str
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to exclude. Default is None.
 all_procsbool, optional
When True, display output on all ranks. Default is False, which will display output only from rank 0.
 out_streamfilelike object
Where to send human readable output. Default is sys.stdout. Set to None to suppress.
 Returns
 list of (name, metadata)
List of input names and other optional information about those inputs.

list_outputs
(explicit=True, implicit=True, values=True, prom_name=False, residuals=False, residuals_tol=None, units=False, shape=False, global_shape=False, bounds=False, scaling=False, desc=False, hierarchical=True, print_arrays=False, tags=None, includes=None, excludes=None, all_procs=False, list_autoivcs=False, out_stream=DEFAULT_OUT_STREAM)¶ Write a list of output names and other optional information to a specified stream.
 Parameters
 explicitbool, optional
include outputs from explicit components. Default is True.
 implicitbool, optional
include outputs from implicit components. Default is True.
 valuesbool, optional
When True, display output values. Default is True.
 prom_namebool, optional
When True, display the promoted name of the variable. Default is False.
 residualsbool, optional
When True, display residual values. Default is False.
 residuals_tolfloat, optional
If set, limits the output of list_outputs to only variables where the norm of the resids array is greater than the given ‘residuals_tol’. Default is None.
 unitsbool, optional
When True, display units. Default is False.
 shapebool, optional
When True, display/return the shape of the value. Default is False.
 global_shapebool, optional
When True, display/return the global shape of the value. Default is False.
 boundsbool, optional
When True, display/return bounds (lower and upper). Default is False.
 scalingbool, optional
When True, display/return scaling (ref, ref0, and res_ref). Default is False.
 descbool, optional
When True, display/return description. Default is False.
 hierarchicalbool, optional
When True, human readable output shows variables in hierarchical format.
 print_arraysbool, optional
When False, in the columnar display, just display norm of any ndarrays with size > 1. The norm is surrounded by vertical bars to indicate that it is a norm. When True, also display full values of the ndarray below the row. Format is affected by the values set with numpy.set_printoptions Default is False.
 tagsstr or list of strs
User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed. Only outputs with the given tags will be listed. Default is None, which means there will be no filtering based on tags.
 includesNone or iter of str
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to include. Default is None, which includes all output variables.
 excludesNone or iter of str
Collection of glob patterns for pathnames of variables to exclude. Default is None.
 all_procsbool, optional
When True, display output on all processors. Default is False.
 list_autoivcsbool
If True, include auto_ivc outputs in the listing. Defaults to False.
 out_streamfilelike
Where to send human readable output. Default is sys.stdout. Set to None to suppress.
 Returns
 list of (name, metadata)
List of output names and other optional information about those outputs.

property
msginfo
¶ Our instance pathname, if available, or our class name. For use in error messages.
 Returns
 str
Either our instance pathname or class name.

property
nonlinear_solver
¶ Get the nonlinear solver for this system.

record_iteration
()¶ Record an iteration of the current System.

run_apply_linear
(vec_names, mode, scope_out=None, scope_in=None)¶ Compute jacvec product.
This calls _apply_linear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.
 Parameters
 vec_names[str, …]
list of names of the righthandside vectors.
 modestr
‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.
 scope_outset or None
Set of absolute output names in the scope of this matvec product. If None, all are in the scope.
 scope_inset or None
Set of absolute input names in the scope of this matvec product. If None, all are in the scope.

run_apply_nonlinear
()¶ Compute residuals.
This calls _apply_nonlinear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

run_linearize
(sub_do_ln=True)¶ Compute jacobian / factorization.
This calls _linearize, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.
 Parameters
 sub_do_lnboolean
Flag indicating if the children should call linearize on their linear solvers.

run_solve_linear
(vec_names, mode)¶ Apply inverse jac product.
This calls _solve_linear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.
 Parameters
 vec_names[str, …]
list of names of the righthandside vectors.
 modestr
‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.

run_solve_nonlinear
()¶ Compute outputs.
This calls _solve_nonlinear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

set_check_partial_options
(wrt, method='fd', form=None, step=None, step_calc=None, directional=False)¶ Set options that will be used for checking partial derivatives.
 Parameters
 wrtstr or list of str
The name or names of the variables that derivatives are taken with respect to. This can contain the name of any input or output variable. May also contain a glob pattern.
 methodstr
Method for check: “fd” for finite difference, “cs” for complex step.
 formstr
Finite difference form for check, can be “forward”, “central”, or “backward”. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.
 stepfloat
Step size for finite difference check. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.
 step_calcstr
Type of step calculation for check, can be “abs” for absolute (default) or “rel” for relative. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.
 directionalbool
Set to True to perform a single directional derivative for each vector variable in the pattern named in wrt.

set_initial_values
()¶ Set all input and output variables to their declared initial values.

set_solver_print
(level=2, depth=1e+99, type_='all')¶ Control printing for solvers and subsolvers in the model.
 Parameters
 levelint
iprint level. Set to 2 to print residuals each iteration; set to 1 to print just the iteration totals; set to 0 to disable all printing except for failures, and set to 1 to disable all printing including failures.
 depthint
How deep to recurse. For example, you can set this to 0 if you only want to print the top level linear and nonlinear solver messages. Default prints everything.
 type_str
Type of solver to set: ‘LN’ for linear, ‘NL’ for nonlinear, or ‘all’ for all.

setup
()¶ Set up variable name and metadata lists.

setup_partials
()¶ Declare partials.
This is meant to be overridden by component classes. All partials should be declared here since this is called after all size/shape information is known for all variables.

system_iter
(include_self=False, recurse=True, typ=None)¶ Yield a generator of local subsystems of this system.
 Parameters
 include_selfbool
If True, include this system in the iteration.
 recursebool
If True, iterate over the whole tree under this system.
 typtype
If not None, only yield Systems that match that are instances of the given type.

use_fixed_coloring
(coloring=<object object>, recurse=True)¶ Use a precomputed coloring for this System.
 Parameters
 coloringstr
A coloring filename. If no arg is passed, filename will be determined automatically.
 recursebool
If True, set fixed coloring in all subsystems that declare a coloring. Ignored if a specific coloring is passed in.