system.py¶

Define the base System class.

class openmdao.core.system.System(num_par_fd=1, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

Base class for all systems in OpenMDAO.

Never instantiated; subclassed by <Group> or <Component>. All subclasses have their attributes defined here.

In attribute names:

abs / abs_name : absolute, unpromoted variable name, seen from root (unique). rel / rel_name : relative, unpromoted variable name, seen from current system (unique). prom / prom_name : relative, promoted variable name, seen from current system (non-unique). idx : global variable index among variables on all procs (I/O indices separate). my_idx : index among variables in this system, on this processor (I/O indices separate). io : indicates explicitly that input and output variables are combined in the same dict.

Attributes

 name (str) Name of the system, must be different from siblings. pathname (str) Global name of the system, including the path. comm (MPI.Comm or ) MPI communicator object. options (OptionsDictionary) options dictionary recording_options (OptionsDictionary) Recording options dictionary under_complex_step (bool) When True, this system is undergoing complex step. force_alloc_complex (bool) When True, the vectors have been allocated for checking with complex step. iter_count (int) Int that holds the number of times this system has iterated in a recording run. cite (str) Listing of relevant citations that should be referenced when publishing work that uses this class. supports_multivecs (bool) If True, this system overrides compute_multi_jacvec_product (if an ExplicitComponent), or solve_multi_linear/apply_multi_linear (if an ImplicitComponent). matrix_free (Bool) This is set to True if the component overrides the appropriate function with a user-defined matrix vector product with the Jacobian or any of its subsystems do.
__init__(self, num_par_fd=1, **kwargs)[source]

Initialize all attributes.

Parameters
num_par_fdint

If FD is active, number of concurrent FD solves.

**kwargsdict of keyword arguments

Keyword arguments that will be mapped into the System options.

add_constraint(self, name, lower=None, upper=None, equals=None, ref=None, ref0=None, adder=None, scaler=None, units=None, indices=None, linear=False, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)[source]

Add a constraint variable to this system.

Parameters
namestring

Name of the response variable in the system.

lowerfloat or ndarray, optional

Lower boundary for the variable

upperfloat or ndarray, optional

Upper boundary for the variable

equalsfloat or ndarray, optional

Equality constraint value for the variable

reffloat or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.

ref0float or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.

Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

scalerfloat or ndarray, optional

value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

unitsstr, optional

Units to convert to before applying scaling.

indicessequence of int, optional

If variable is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular response. These may be positive or negative integers.

linearbool

Set to True if constraint is linear. Default is False.

parallel_deriv_colorstring

If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.

vectorize_derivsbool

If True, vectorize derivative calculations.

cache_linear_solutionbool

If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.

Notes

The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument ref0 represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argument ref represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1. The arguments (lower, upper, equals) can not be strings or variable names.

add_design_var(self, name, lower=None, upper=None, ref=None, ref0=None, indices=None, adder=None, scaler=None, units=None, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)[source]

Add a design variable to this system.

Parameters
namestring

Name of the design variable in the system.

lowerfloat or ndarray, optional

Lower boundary for the param

upperupper or ndarray, optional

Upper boundary for the param

reffloat or ndarray, optional

Value of design var that scales to 1.0 in the driver.

ref0float or ndarray, optional

Value of design var that scales to 0.0 in the driver.

indicesiter of int, optional

If a param is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular design variable. These may be positive or negative integers.

unitsstr, optional

Units to convert to before applying scaling.

Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

scalerfloat or ndarray, optional

value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

parallel_deriv_colorstring

If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.

vectorize_derivsbool

If True, vectorize derivative calculations.

cache_linear_solutionbool

If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.

Notes

The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument ref0 represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argument ref represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1.

add_objective(self, name, ref=None, ref0=None, index=None, units=None, adder=None, scaler=None, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)[source]

Add a response variable to this system.

Parameters
namestring

Name of the response variable in the system.

reffloat or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.

ref0float or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.

indexint, optional

If variable is an array, this indicates which entry is of interest for this particular response. This may be a positive or negative integer.

unitsstr, optional

Units to convert to before applying scaling.

Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

scalerfloat or ndarray, optional

value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

parallel_deriv_colorstring

If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.

vectorize_derivsbool

If True, vectorize derivative calculations.

cache_linear_solutionbool

If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.

Notes

The objective can be scaled using scaler and adder, where

$x_{scaled} = scaler(x + adder)$

or through the use of ref/ref0, which map to scaler and adder through the equations:

\begin{align}\begin{aligned}0 = scaler(ref_0 + adder)\\1 = scaler(ref + adder)\end{aligned}\end{align}

which results in:

\begin{align}\begin{aligned}adder = -ref_0\\scaler = \frac{1}{ref + adder}\end{aligned}\end{align}
add_recorder(self, recorder, recurse=False)[source]

Add a recorder to the system.

Parameters
recorder<CaseRecorder>

A recorder instance.

recurseboolean

Flag indicating if the recorder should be added to all the subsystems.

add_response(self, name, type_, lower=None, upper=None, equals=None, ref=None, ref0=None, indices=None, index=None, units=None, adder=None, scaler=None, linear=False, parallel_deriv_color=None, vectorize_derivs=False, cache_linear_solution=False)[source]

Add a response variable to this system.

The response can be scaled using ref and ref0. The argument ref0 represents the physical value when the scaled value is 0. The argument ref represents the physical value when the scaled value is 1.

Parameters
namestring

Name of the response variable in the system.

type_string

The type of response. Supported values are ‘con’ and ‘obj’

lowerfloat or ndarray, optional

Lower boundary for the variable

upperupper or ndarray, optional

Upper boundary for the variable

equalsequals or ndarray, optional

Equality constraint value for the variable

reffloat or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 1.0 in the driver.

ref0upper or ndarray, optional

Value of response variable that scales to 0.0 in the driver.

indicessequence of int, optional

If variable is an array, these indicate which entries are of interest for this particular response.

indexint, optional

If variable is an array, this indicates which entry is of interest for this particular response.

unitsstr, optional

Units to convert to before applying scaling.

Value to add to the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. adder is first in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

scalerfloat or ndarray, optional

value to multiply the model value to get the scaled value for the driver. scaler is second in precedence. adder and scaler are an alterantive to using ref and ref0.

linearbool

Set to True if constraint is linear. Default is False.

parallel_deriv_colorstring

If specified, this design var will be grouped for parallel derivative calculations with other variables sharing the same parallel_deriv_color.

vectorize_derivsbool

If True, vectorize derivative calculations.

cache_linear_solutionbool

If True, store the linear solution vectors for this variable so they can be used to start the next linear solution with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous linear solve.

check_config(self, logger)[source]

Perform optional error checks.

Parameters
loggerobject

The object that manages logging output.

cleanup(self)[source]

Clean up resources prior to exit.

convert2units(self, name, val, units)[source]

Convert the given value to the specified units.

Parameters
namestr

Name of the variable.

valfloat or ndarray of float

The value of the variable.

unitsstr

The units to convert to.

Returns
float or ndarray of float

The value converted to the specified units.

declare_coloring(self, wrt='*', method='fd', form=None, step=None, per_instance=True, num_full_jacs=3, tol=1e-25, orders=None, perturb_size=1e-09, min_improve_pct=5.0, show_summary=True, show_sparsity=False)[source]

Set options for deriv coloring of a set of wrt vars matching the given pattern(s).

Parameters
wrtstr or list of str

The name or names of the variables that derivatives are taken with respect to. This can contain input names, output names, or glob patterns.

methodstr

Method used to compute derivative: “fd” for finite difference, “cs” for complex step.

formstr

Finite difference form, can be “forward”, “central”, or “backward”. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.

stepfloat

Step size for finite difference. Leave undeclared to keep unchanged from previous or default value.

per_instancebool

If True, a separate coloring will be generated for each instance of a given class. Otherwise, only one coloring for a given class will be generated and all instances of that class will use it.

num_full_jacsint

Number of times to repeat partial jacobian computation when computing sparsity.

tolfloat

Tolerance used to determine if an array entry is nonzero during sparsity determination.

ordersint

Number of orders above and below the tolerance to check during the tolerance sweep.

perturb_sizefloat

Size of input/output perturbation during generation of sparsity.

min_improve_pctfloat

If coloring does not improve (decrease) the number of solves more than the given percentage, coloring will not be used.

show_summarybool

If True, display summary information after generating coloring.

show_sparsitybool

If True, display sparsity with coloring info after generating coloring.

get_approx_coloring_fname(self)[source]

Return the full pathname to a coloring file.

Parameters
systemSystem

The System having its coloring saved or loaded.

Returns
str

Full pathname of the coloring file.

get_constraints(self, recurse=True)[source]

Get the Constraint settings from this system.

Retrieve the constraint settings for the current system as a dict, keyed by variable name.

Parameters
recursebool, optional

If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all constraints relative to the this system.

Returns
dict

The constraints defined in the current system.

get_design_vars(self, recurse=True, get_sizes=True)[source]

Get the DesignVariable settings from this system.

Retrieve all design variable settings from the system and, if recurse is True, all of its subsystems.

Parameters
recursebool

If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all design vars relative to the this system.

get_sizesbool, optional

If True, compute the size of each design variable.

Returns
dict

The design variables defined in the current system and, if recurse=True, its subsystems.

get_linear_vectors(self, vec_name='linear')[source]

Return the linear inputs, outputs, and residuals vectors.

Parameters
vec_namestr

Name of the linear right-hand-side vector. The default is ‘linear’.

Returns
(inputs, outputs, residuals)tuple of <Vector> instances

Yields the inputs, outputs, and residuals linear vectors for vec_name.

get_nonlinear_vectors(self)[source]

Return the inputs, outputs, and residuals vectors.

Returns
(inputs, outputs, residuals)tuple of <Vector> instances

Yields the inputs, outputs, and residuals nonlinear vectors.

get_objectives(self, recurse=True)[source]

Get the Objective settings from this system.

Retrieve all objectives settings from the system as a dict, keyed by variable name.

Parameters
recursebool, optional

If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all objective relative to the this system.

Returns
dict

The objectives defined in the current system.

get_responses(self, recurse=True, get_sizes=True)[source]

Get the response variable settings from this system.

Retrieve all response variable settings from the system as a dict, keyed by variable name.

Parameters
recursebool, optional

If True, recurse through the subsystems and return the path of all responses relative to the this system.

get_sizesbool, optional

If True, compute the size of each response.

Returns
dict

The responses defined in the current system and, if recurse=True, its subsystems.

initialize(self)[source]

Perform any one-time initialization run at instantiation.

is_active(self)[source]

Determine if the system is active on this rank.

Returns
bool

If running under MPI, returns True if this System has a valid communicator. Always returns True if not running under MPI.

property linear_solver

Get the linear solver for this system.

list_inputs(self, values=True, prom_name=False, units=False, shape=False, global_shape=False, desc=False, hierarchical=True, print_arrays=False, tags=None, includes=None, excludes=None, all_procs=False, out_stream=<object object at 0x7fdd45cdafe0>)[source]

Return and optionally log a list of input names and other optional information.

If the model is parallel, only the local variables are returned to the process. Also optionally logs the information to a user defined output stream. If the model is parallel, the rank 0 process logs information about all variables across all processes.

Parameters
valuesbool, optional

When True, display/return input values. Default is True.

prom_namebool, optional

When True, display/return the promoted name of the variable. Default is False.

unitsbool, optional

When True, display/return units. Default is False.

shapebool, optional

When True, display/return the shape of the value. Default is False.

global_shapebool, optional

When True, display/return the global shape of the value. Default is False.

descbool, optional

When True, display/return description. Default is False.

hierarchicalbool, optional

When True, human readable output shows variables in hierarchical format.

print_arraysbool, optional

When False, in the columnar display, just display norm of any ndarrays with size > 1. The norm is surrounded by vertical bars to indicate that it is a norm. When True, also display full values of the ndarray below the row. Format is affected by the values set with numpy.set_printoptions Default is False.

tagsstr or list of strs

User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed. Only inputs with the given tags will be listed. Default is None, which means there will be no filtering based on tags.

includesNone or list_like

List of glob patterns for pathnames to include in the check. Default is None, which includes all components in the model.

excludesNone or list_like

List of glob patterns for pathnames to exclude from the check. Default is None, which excludes nothing.

all_procsbool, optional

When True, display output on all processors. Default is False.

out_streamfile-like object

Where to send human readable output. Default is sys.stdout. Set to None to suppress.

Returns
list

list of input names and other optional information about those inputs

list_outputs(self, explicit=True, implicit=True, values=True, prom_name=False, residuals=False, residuals_tol=None, units=False, shape=False, global_shape=False, bounds=False, scaling=False, desc=False, hierarchical=True, print_arrays=False, tags=None, includes=None, excludes=None, all_procs=False, out_stream=<object object at 0x7fdd45cdafe0>)[source]

Return and optionally log a list of output names and other optional information.

If the model is parallel, only the local variables are returned to the process. Also optionally logs the information to a user defined output stream. If the model is parallel, the rank 0 process logs information about all variables across all processes.

Parameters
explicitbool, optional

include outputs from explicit components. Default is True.

implicitbool, optional

include outputs from implicit components. Default is True.

valuesbool, optional

When True, display/return output values. Default is True.

prom_namebool, optional

When True, display/return the promoted name of the variable. Default is False.

residualsbool, optional

When True, display/return residual values. Default is False.

residuals_tolfloat, optional

If set, limits the output of list_outputs to only variables where the norm of the resids array is greater than the given ‘residuals_tol’. Default is None.

unitsbool, optional

When True, display/return units. Default is False.

shapebool, optional

When True, display/return the shape of the value. Default is False.

global_shapebool, optional

When True, display/return the global shape of the value. Default is False.

boundsbool, optional

When True, display/return bounds (lower and upper). Default is False.

scalingbool, optional

When True, display/return scaling (ref, ref0, and res_ref). Default is False.

descbool, optional

When True, display/return description. Default is False.

hierarchicalbool, optional

When True, human readable output shows variables in hierarchical format.

print_arraysbool, optional

When False, in the columnar display, just display norm of any ndarrays with size > 1. The norm is surrounded by vertical bars to indicate that it is a norm. When True, also display full values of the ndarray below the row. Format is affected by the values set with numpy.set_printoptions Default is False.

tagsstr or list of strs

User defined tags that can be used to filter what gets listed. Only outputs with the given tags will be listed. Default is None, which means there will be no filtering based on tags.

includesNone or list_like

List of glob patterns for pathnames to include in the check. Default is None, which includes all components in the model.

excludesNone or list_like

List of glob patterns for pathnames to exclude from the check. Default is None, which excludes nothing.

all_procsbool, optional

When True, display output on all processors. Default is False.

out_streamfile-like

Where to send human readable output. Default is sys.stdout. Set to None to suppress.

Returns
list

list of output names and other optional information about those outputs

property msginfo

Our instance pathname, if available, or our class name. For use in error messages.

Returns
str

Either our instance pathname or class name.

property nonlinear_solver

Get the nonlinear solver for this system.

reconfigure(self)[source]

Perform reconfiguration.

Returns
bool

If True, reconfiguration is to be performed.

record_iteration(self)[source]

Record an iteration of the current System.

resetup(self, setup_mode='full')[source]

Public wrapper for _setup that reconfigures after an initial setup has been performed.

Parameters
setup_modestr

Must be one of ‘full’, ‘reconf’, or ‘update’.

run_apply_linear(self, vec_names, mode, scope_out=None, scope_in=None)[source]

Compute jac-vec product.

This calls _apply_linear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

Parameters
vec_names[str, …]

list of names of the right-hand-side vectors.

modestr

‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.

scope_outset or None

Set of absolute output names in the scope of this mat-vec product. If None, all are in the scope.

scope_inset or None

Set of absolute input names in the scope of this mat-vec product. If None, all are in the scope.

run_apply_nonlinear(self)[source]

Compute residuals.

This calls _apply_nonlinear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

run_linearize(self, sub_do_ln=True)[source]

Compute jacobian / factorization.

This calls _linearize, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

Parameters
sub_do_lnboolean

Flag indicating if the children should call linearize on their linear solvers.

run_solve_linear(self, vec_names, mode)[source]

Apply inverse jac product.

This calls _solve_linear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

Parameters
vec_names[str, …]

list of names of the right-hand-side vectors.

modestr

‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.

run_solve_nonlinear(self)[source]

Compute outputs.

This calls _solve_nonlinear, but with the model assumed to be in an unscaled state.

set_initial_values(self)[source]

Set all input and output variables to their declared initial values.

set_solver_print(self, level=2, depth=1e+99, type_='all')[source]

Control printing for solvers and subsolvers in the model.

Parameters
levelint

iprint level. Set to 2 to print residuals each iteration; set to 1 to print just the iteration totals; set to 0 to disable all printing except for failures, and set to -1 to disable all printing including failures.

depthint

How deep to recurse. For example, you can set this to 0 if you only want to print the top level linear and nonlinear solver messages. Default prints everything.

type_str

Type of solver to set: ‘LN’ for linear, ‘NL’ for nonlinear, or ‘all’ for all.

system_iter(self, include_self=False, recurse=True, typ=None)[source]

Yield a generator of local subsystems of this system.

Parameters
include_selfbool

If True, include this system in the iteration.

recursebool

If True, iterate over the whole tree under this system.

typtype

If not None, only yield Systems that match that are instances of the given type.

use_fixed_coloring(self, coloring=<object object at 0x7fdd46258cf0>, recurse=True)[source]

Use a precomputed coloring for this System.

Parameters
coloringstr

A coloring filename. If no arg is passed, filename will be determined automatically.

recursebool

If True, set fixed coloring in all subsystems that declare a coloring. Ignored if a specific coloring is passed in.

openmdao.core.system.get_relevant_vars(connections, desvars, responses, mode)[source]

Find all relevant vars between desvars and responses.

Both vars are assumed to be outputs (either design vars or responses).

Parameters
connectionsdict

Mapping of targets to their sources.

desvarslist of str

Names of design variables.

responseslist of str

Names of response variables.

modestr

Direction of derivatives, either ‘fwd’ or ‘rev’.

Returns
dict

Dict of ({‘outputs’: dep_outputs, ‘inputs’: dep_inputs, dep_systems) keyed by design vars and responses.