# Recording Your Inputs and Outputs¶

The previous section showed you how you can record output from OpenMDAO using a case recorder. This next lesson will show you the available case recorders in more detail.

OpenMDAO contains the following case recorders:

Name Output Type
CSVCaseRecorder CSV file, defaults to cases.csv
DBCaseRecorder SQLite database, default ':memory:'; can also be stored in file
DumpCaseRecorder File-like object, defaults to sys.stdout
ListCaseRecorder Python List

The recorders are interchangeable, so you can use any of them in a slot that can accept them. All drivers contain a slot that can accept a list of case recorders. Why a list? It’s so you can have the same case data recorded in multiple ways if you want to. For example, you could use the DumpCaseRecorder to output data to the screen and use the DBCaseRecorder to save the same data to a database.

Each driver determines what it needs to write to the recorders in its list. In the previous example, the DOEdriver saves each point in the DOE as a case. However, a single-objective optimizer, such as the SLSQPdriver, saves the state of the model at each iteration in the optimization so that the convergence history can be observed. The state of the model includes the parameters, objective, constraints, and any other data that you choose to include by listing them in the printvars variable.

The CSVCaseRecorder outputs the selected variables into a file in the csv (Comma Separated Value) format. The DBCaseRecorder stores the selected variables in an SQLite database, which can be stored in memory or on disc as a binary file. The DumpCaseRecorder is used to output the selected variables into a file-like object in a human-readable format. The default object is sys.stdout, which redirects the output to STDOUT. It can also take a filename as an argument. Finally, the ListCaseRecorder stores the cases in a Python list. Of these recorders, the CSVCaseRecorder is the most useful for passing data to other applications, such as an external post-processing tool. The DBCaseRecorder is the most useful for saving data for later use.

At the end of the top-level assembly’s run(), all case recorders are closed. Each type of recorder defines its own implementation of close(), but the general idea is to specify that the recording process is complete. For example, the CSVCaseRecorder will close the file being written so that other applications can use it. Note that in some cases you cannot record to a closed recorder.

Let’s consider our simple unconstrained optimization of the Paraboloid component with SLSQP. We would like to print out the convergence history of the variables, objective, and constraint into a csv file, which we can read into Excel for some post processing. Additionally, we’d like to save an SQLite database for future use. The code for this should look like:

from openmdao.main.api import Assembly
from openmdao.lib.drivers.api import SLSQPdriver

from openmdao.examples.simple.paraboloid import Paraboloid

class OptimizationConstrained(Assembly):
"""Constrained optimization of the Paraboloid component."""

def configure(self):
""" Creates a new Assembly containing a Paraboloid and an optimizer"""

# Create Paraboloid component instances
self.add('paraboloid', Paraboloid())

# Create Optimizer instance
self.add('driver', SLSQPdriver())

# Driver process definition
self.driver.workflow.add('paraboloid')

# Optimzier Flags
self.driver.iprint = 0

# Objective
self.driver.add_objective('paraboloid.f_xy')

# Design Variables
self.driver.add_parameter('paraboloid.x', low=-50., high=50.)
self.driver.add_parameter('paraboloid.y', low=-50., high=50.)

# Constraints
self.driver.add_constraint('paraboloid.x-paraboloid.y >= 15.0')

if __name__ == "__main__": # pragma: no cover

import time

opt_problem = OptimizationConstrained()

#-----------------------------
# Set up our CaseRecorders
#-----------------------------
import os
if os.path.exists('converge.db'):
os.remove('converge.db')

from openmdao.lib.casehandlers.api import CSVCaseRecorder, DBCaseRecorder

opt_problem.driver.recorders = [CSVCaseRecorder(filename='converge.csv'),
DBCaseRecorder(dbfile='converge.db', append=False)]
opt_problem.driver.printvars = ['*']

#-----------------------------
# Run problem
#-----------------------------

opt_problem.run()

#----------------------------------------------------
# Print out history of our objective for inspection
#----------------------------------------------------

for case in opt_problem.driver.recorders[0].get_iterator():
print case

print "\n"
print "Minimum found at (%f, %f)" % (opt_problem.paraboloid.x, \
opt_problem.paraboloid.y)


Here, we set opt_problem.driver.recorders to be a list that contains the csv and db case recorders. The CSVCaseRecorder takes a filename as an argument, as does the DBCaseRecorder. These files will be written in the directory where you execute this Python file.

OpenMDAO has a data structure for storing case information. This structure includes the variable names, their status as an input or output, and a number of other metadata fields. Run the above code, and inspect the resulting file converge.csv.

"label","/INPUTS","paraboloid.y","paraboloid.x","/OUTPUTS","Objective","Constraint ( paraboloid.x-paraboloid.y >= 15.0 )","/METADATA","retries","max_retries","parent_uuid","msg"
"1","",0.0,0.0,"",22.0,-15.0,"","","",""
"2","",-8.50000000486,6.50000000636,"",-25.7499999974,1.12260067908e-08,"","","","",""
"3","",-6.7370023896,8.26299760727,"",-23.4775087306,-3.13171355515e-09,"","","","",""
"4","",-7.83333333577,7.16666667003,"",-27.0833333304,5.79672487788e-09,"","","","",""


This file should be readable into an application that accepts a csv input file. The first line is a header that contains the variable names for the values that are printed. Notice that the objective and constraints are printed for an optimizer driver. The first column is a case label, which contains the iteration count. Columns with a section header ("/INPUTS", "/OUTPUTS", "/METADATA") do not contain any data. The final columns in the file contain some metadata associated with the case. None of these are set by SLSQPdriver. Note that in OpenMDAO’s flavor of csv, string data will always be enclosed in double quotes.

The CSVCaseRecorder supports simple data types – integers, floats, and strings. It also supports single elements of an array. The chosen element becomes a column in the csv file. Some of the more complicated data types – dictionaries, lists, multi-dimensional arrays, custom data objects – are not yet supported by the CSVCaseRecorder, and it is not clear how some of these could best be represented in a comma-separated format. However, the other case recorders should support every type of variable, provided that it can be serialized.

The DumpCaseRecorder is generally used to write readable text to a file or to STDOUT. Let’s try using a DumpCaseRecorder to output a history of our parameters, constraints, and objectives to a file named 'data.txt'.

from openmdao.examples.simple.optimization_constrained import OptimizationConstrained
from openmdao.lib.casehandlers.api import DumpCaseRecorder

opt_problem = OptimizationConstrained()

outfile = open('data.txt', 'w')
opt_problem.driver.recorders = [DumpCaseRecorder(outfile)]
opt_problem.run()


You should now have a file called 'data.txt' that contains output that looks like this:

Case: 3
uuid: 409e0790-6f91-11e1-b85e-005056b50025
inputs:
paraboloid.x: 7.16666667003
paraboloid.y: -7.83333333577
outputs:
Constraint ( paraboloid.x-paraboloid.y>=15.0 ): 5.79672487788e-09
Objective: -27.0833333304

We can also choose to print out all framework variables from components in this driver’s workflow using the wildcard “*” in the printvars list and rerunning the model.

opt_problem.driver.printvars = ['*']
opt_problem.run()


The output produced is more detailed:

Case: 14
uuid: c32f6c1c-6f91-11e1-bebc-005056b50025
inputs:
driver.accuracy: 1e-06
driver.differentiator: <openmdao.lib.differentiators.finite_difference.FiniteDifference object at 0x1cbad350>
driver.directory:
driver.force_execute: True
driver.iout: 6
driver.iprint: 0
driver.maxiter: 50
driver.output_filename: slsqp.out
driver.printvars: ['*']
paraboloid.directory:
paraboloid.force_execute: False
paraboloid.x: 7.16666667003
paraboloid.y: -7.83333333577
outputs:
Constraint ( paraboloid.x-paraboloid.y>=15.0 ): 5.79672487788e-09
Objective: -27.0833333304
driver.error_code: 0
paraboloid.f_xy: -27.0833333304

You can also use partial wildcard matches and include multiple wildcards in the printvars list, so scenarios like this

opt_problem.driver.printvars = ['comp1.*', 'comp2.*', *error*]

are possible. This will return a set of cases with all variables from comp1, comp2 as well as any variable with “error” in its name.

The wildcard ”?” is also supported for matching single characters, so you could rewrite the previous line like this:

opt_problem.driver.printvars = ['comp?.*', *error*]

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Building a Model - Executing a Design of Experiment (DOE)

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Adding Derivatives to Your Components