Source code for openmdao.util.eggsaver

"""
Egg save utilities.

Note that :mod:`pickle` can't save references to functions that aren't defined
at the top level of a module, and there doesn't appear to be a viable
workaround.  Normally :mod:`pickle` won't handle instance methods either,
but there is code in place to work around that.

When saving to an egg, the module named :mod:`__main__` changes when reloading.
This requires finding the real module name and munging references to
:mod:`__main__`.  References to old-style class types can't be restored
correctly.
"""

#Also note that YAML format doesn't handle more than one layer of back-pointers, 
#so it's only suitable for very flat object networks.

# Note that handling __main__ module references is exercised during testing by
# running in separate process, so no coverage will be reported by this process.
# Consequently, there are a lot of '#pragma no cover' annotations where
# __main__ handling is involved.

import pickle
import cPickle
#import yaml
#try:
    #from yaml import CDumper as Dumper
    #_libyaml = True
## Test machines have libyaml.
#except ImportError:  #pragma no cover
    #from yaml import Dumper
    #_libyaml = False

import copy
import copy_reg
import datetime
import fnmatch
import inspect
import modulefinder
import os.path
import pkg_resources
import shutil
import sys
import tempfile
import types

from zope.interface.interface import InterfaceClass

from openmdao.util.log import NullLogger, LOG_DEBUG2
from openmdao.util import eggobserver, eggwriter

# Save formats.
#SAVE_YAML    = 1
#SAVE_LIBYAML = 2
SAVE_PICKLE  = 3
SAVE_CPICKLE = 4


# Code from the net.  More flexible, but doesn't handle __main__ as well.
#
#def _pickle_method(method):
#    """ Pickles an instancemethod object. """
#    func_name = method.im_func.__name__
#    obj = method.im_self
#    cls = method.im_class
#    return _unpickle_method, (func_name, obj, cls)
#
#def _unpickle_method(func_name, obj, cls):
#    """ Unpickles an instancemethod object. """
#    for cls in cls.mro():
#        try:
#            func = cls.__dict__[func_name]
#        except KeyError:
#            pass
#        else:
#            break
#    return func.__get__(obj, cls)

def _pickle_method(method):
    """ Pickles an instancemethod object. """
    name = method.__name__
    im_self = method.im_self
    if im_self is not None:
        im_class = None  # Avoid possible __main__ issues.
    else:
        # TODO: handle __main__ for im_class.__module__.
        im_class = method.im_class
        if im_class.__module__ == '__main__':  #pragma no cover
            raise RuntimeError('_pickle_method: %r with module __main__ (%s)'
                               % (method, im_self))
    return _unpickle_method, (name, im_self, im_class)

def _unpickle_method(name, im_self, im_class):
    """ Unpickles an instancemethod object. """
    if im_self is not None:
        return getattr(im_self, name)
    else:
        return getattr(im_class, name)

# Register instancemethod handling.
copy_reg.pickle(types.MethodType, _pickle_method, _unpickle_method)


[docs]def save_to_egg(entry_pts, version=None, py_dir=None, src_dir=None, src_files=None, dst_dir=None, logger=None, observer=None, need_requirements=True): """ Save state and other files to an egg. Analyzes the objects saved for distribution dependencies. Modules not found in any distribution are recorded in an ``egg-info/openmdao_orphans.txt`` file. Also creates and saves loader scripts for each entry point. entry_pts: list List of ``(obj, obj_name, obj_group)`` tuples. The first of these specifies the root object and package name. version: string Defaults to a timestamp of the form 'YYYY.MM.DD.HH.mm'. py_dir: string The (root) directory for local Python files. It defaults to the current directory. src_dir: string The root of all (relative) `src_files`. dst_dir: string The directory to write the egg in. observer: callable Will be called via an :class:`EggObserver` intermediary. need_requirements: bool If True, distributions required by the egg will be determined. This can be set False if the egg is just being used for distribution within the local host. Returns ``(egg_filename, required_distributions, orphan_modules)``. """ root, name, group = entry_pts[0] logger = logger or NullLogger() observer = eggobserver.EggObserver(observer, logger) orig_dir = os.getcwd() if not py_dir: py_dir = orig_dir else: py_dir = os.path.realpath(py_dir) if sys.platform == 'win32': #pragma no cover py_dir = py_dir.lower() if src_dir: src_dir = os.path.realpath(src_dir) if sys.platform == 'win32': #pragma no cover src_dir = src_dir.lower() src_files = src_files or set() if not version: now = datetime.datetime.now() # Could consider using utcnow(). version = '%d.%02d.%02d.%02d.%02d' % \ (now.year, now.month, now.day, now.hour, now.minute) dst_dir = dst_dir or orig_dir if not os.access(dst_dir, os.W_OK): msg = "Can't save to '%s', no write permission" % dst_dir observer.exception(msg) raise IOError(msg) egg_name = eggwriter.egg_filename(name, version) logger.debug('Saving to %s in %s...', egg_name, orig_dir) # Get a list of all objects we'll be saving. objs = _get_objects(root, logger) # Check that each object can be pickled. _check_objects(objs, logger, observer) # Fixup objects, classes, & sys.modules for __main__ imports. fixup = _fix_objects(objs, observer) # Verify that the fixups are retained. _verify_objects(root, logger, observer) tmp_dir = None try: if need_requirements: # Determine distributions and local modules required. required_distributions, local_modules, orphan_modules = \ _get_distributions(objs, py_dir, logger, observer) else: required_distributions = set() local_modules = set() orphan_modules = set() # Collect Python modules. for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(py_dir): dirs = copy.copy(dirnames) for path in dirs: if not os.path.exists(os.path.join(dirpath, path, '__init__.py')): dirnames.remove(path) for path in filenames: if path.endswith('.py'): local_modules.add(os.path.join(dirpath, path)) # Ensure module corresponding to __main__ is local if it was used. # (Test script embedded in egg is an example of how this might occur) fixup_objects, fixup_classes, fixup_modules = fixup if fixup_objects: #pragma no cover # Something references __main__. main_mod = sys.modules['__main__'].__file__ local_modules.add(os.path.abspath(main_mod)) logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' py_dir: %s', py_dir) logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' src_dir: %s', src_dir) logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' local_modules:') for module in sorted(local_modules): mod = module if mod.startswith(py_dir): mod = mod[len(py_dir)+1:] logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' %s', mod) # Move to scratch area. tmp_dir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix='Egg_', dir=tmp_dir) os.chdir(tmp_dir) os.mkdir(name) cleanup_files = [] try: # Copy external files from src_dir. if src_dir: for path in src_files: subdir = os.path.dirname(path) if subdir: subdir = os.path.join(name, subdir) if not os.path.exists(subdir): os.makedirs(subdir) src = os.path.join(src_dir, path) dst = os.path.join(name, path) if sys.platform == 'win32': #pragma no cover shutil.copy2(src, dst) else: os.symlink(src, dst) # Copy local modules from py_dir. for path in local_modules: if not os.path.exists( os.path.join(name, os.path.basename(path))): if not os.path.isabs(path): path = os.path.join(py_dir, path) shutil.copy(path, name) # For each entry point... entry_info = [] for obj, obj_name, obj_group in entry_pts: clean_name = obj_name if clean_name.startswith(name+'.'): clean_name = clean_name[len(name)+1:] clean_name = clean_name.replace('.', '_') # Save state of object hierarchy. state_name, state_path = \ _write_state_file(name, obj, clean_name, logger, observer) src_files.add(state_name) cleanup_files.append(state_path) # Create loader script. loader = '%s_loader' % clean_name loader_path = os.path.join(name, loader+'.py') cleanup_files.append(loader_path) _write_loader_script(loader_path, state_name, name, obj is root) entry_info.append((obj_group, obj_name, loader)) # If needed, make an empty __init__.py init_path = os.path.join(name, '__init__.py') if not os.path.exists(init_path): cleanup_files.append(init_path) out = open(init_path, 'w') out.close() # Save everything to an egg. doc = root.__doc__ or '' entry_map = _create_entry_map(entry_info) orphans = [mod for mod, path in orphan_modules] eggwriter.write(name, version, doc, entry_map, src_files, required_distributions, orphans, dst_dir, logger, observer.observer) finally: for path in cleanup_files: if os.path.exists(path): os.remove(path) finally: os.chdir(orig_dir) if tmp_dir: shutil.rmtree(tmp_dir) _restore_objects(fixup) return (egg_name, required_distributions, orphan_modules)
def _get_objects(root, logger): """ Get objects to be saved. """ def _recurse_get_objects(obj, objs, visited, logger): """ Use __getstate__(), or scan __dict__, or scan container. """ try: state = obj.__getstate__() except AttributeError: try: state = obj.__dict__ except AttributeError: if isinstance(obj, (dict, list, set, tuple)): state = obj else: return # Some non-container primitive. container = state # Just being defensive. except Exception as exc: #pragma no cover logger.error("During save_to_egg, _get_objects error %s: %s", type(obj), exc) return else: # If possible, get the original container. # (__getstate__ often returns a (modified) copy) try: container = obj.__dict__ except AttributeError: container = None if isinstance(state, dict): indices = state.keys() state = state.values() else: indices = range(len(state)) for obj, index in zip(state, indices): if id(obj) in visited: continue visited.add(id(obj)) objs.append((obj, container, index)) if not inspect.isclass(obj) and not isinstance(obj, InterfaceClass): _recurse_get_objects(obj, objs, visited, logger) objs = [(root, None, None)] visited = set() visited.add(id(root)) _recurse_get_objects(root, objs, visited, logger) return objs def _check_objects(objs, logger, observer): """ Check that each object can be pickled. """ errors = 0 for obj, container, index in objs: try: cls = obj.__class__ except AttributeError: pass else: classname = cls.__name__ if classname == 'function' and \ not hasattr(sys.modules[obj.__module__], obj.__name__): logger.error( "Can't save, can't pickle non-toplevel function %s:%s", obj.__module__, obj.__name__) errors += 1 # # (Debug) actually try to pickle. # try: # cPickle.dumps(obj) # except Exception as exc: # logger.error("Can't pickle obj %r %s:", # obj, obj.__class__.__name__) # logger.error(' %s', exc) # errors += 1 if errors: plural = 's' if errors > 1 else '' msg = "Can't save, %d object%s cannot be pickled." % (errors, plural) observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) def _verify_objects(root, logger, observer): """ Verify no references to __main__ exist. """ objs = _get_objects(root, logger) for obj, container, index in objs: if obj.__class__.__name__ == 'instancemethod': continue # Handled by _pickle_method() above. try: mod = obj.__module__ except AttributeError: continue if mod == '__main__': #pragma no cover msg = "Can't save, unable to patch __main__ module reference in" \ " obj %r, container %r index %s" % (obj, container, index) observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) def _fix_objects(objs, observer): """ Fixup objects, classes, & sys.modules for __main__ imports. """ fixup_objects = [] fixup_classes = {} fixup_modules = set() for obj, container, index in objs: try: if obj.__class__.__name__ == 'instancemethod': continue # Handled by _pickle_method() above. try: mod = obj.__module__ except AttributeError: continue # No module entry to fix. if inspect.isclass(obj): cls = obj else: cls = obj.__class__ if mod is None: # Needed after switching to Traits for some reason. mod = cls.__module__ if mod == '__main__': #pragma no cover _fix_object(obj, container, index, cls, observer, fixup_classes, fixup_modules) fixup_objects.append((obj, container, index)) except Exception: _restore_objects((fixup_objects, fixup_classes, fixup_modules)) raise return (fixup_objects, fixup_classes, fixup_modules) def _fix_object(obj, container, index, cls, observer, fixup_classes, fixup_modules): #pragma no cover """ Fixup one object related to __main__. """ classname = cls.__name__ if classname in ('function', 'type'): msg = "Can't save: reference to %s defined in main module %r" \ % (classname, obj) observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) mod = cls.__module__ if mod == '__main__' and (classname not in fixup_classes): mod, module = _find_in_main(classname) if mod: new = getattr(module, classname) fixup_classes[classname] = (cls, new) fixup_modules.add(mod) else: msg = "Can't find module for '%s'" % classname observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) if inspect.isclass(obj): if isinstance(container, tuple): msg = "Can't save: reference to class %s defined in main" \ " module is contained in a tuple." % classname observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) else: container[index] = fixup_classes[classname][1] else: try: obj.__class__ = fixup_classes[classname][1] except KeyError: msg = "Can't fix %r, classname %s, module %s" \ % (obj, classname, mod) observer.exception(msg) raise RuntimeError(msg) else: obj.__module__ = obj.__class__.__module__ def _find_in_main(classname): #pragma no cover """ Try to get 'real' module for __main__ class. """ filename = sys.modules['__main__'].__file__ if filename.endswith('.py'): if not '.' in sys.path: sys.path.append('.') mod = os.path.basename(filename)[:-3] try: module = __import__(mod, fromlist=[classname]) except ImportError: pass else: return (mod, module) return (None, None) def _restore_objects(fixup): #pragma no cover """ Restore objects, classes, & sys.modules for __main__ imports. """ fixup_objects, fixup_classes, fixup_modules = fixup for obj, container, index in fixup_objects: obj.__module__ = '__main__' if inspect.isclass(obj): classname = obj.__name__ container[index] = fixup_classes[classname][0] else: classname = obj.__class__.__name__ if classname != 'function': obj.__class__ = fixup_classes[classname][0] for classname in fixup_classes.keys(): new = fixup_classes[classname][1] del new for mod in fixup_modules: del sys.modules[mod] def _get_distributions(objs, py_dir, logger, observer): """ Return (distributions, local_modules, orphans) used by objs. """ distributions = set() local_modules = set() orphans = set() modules = set(['__builtin__']) prefixes = set() not_found = set() if _get_distributions.excludes is None: # Exclude Python standard library from ModuleFinder analysis. _get_distributions.excludes = _get_standard_modules() for obj, container, index in objs: try: name = obj.__module__ except AttributeError: continue if name is None or name in modules: continue modules.add(name) # Skip modules in distributions we already know about. try: path = os.path.realpath(sys.modules[name].__file__) except AttributeError: logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' module %s has no __file__', name) continue if sys.platform == 'win32': # pragma no cover orig_path = path path = path.lower() found = False for prefix in prefixes: if path.startswith(prefix): found = True break if found: continue if sys.platform == 'win32': # pragma no cover path = orig_path egg = path.find('.egg') if egg > 0: # We'll assume the egg has accurate dependencies. path = path[:egg+4] _process_egg(path, distributions, prefixes, logger) else: # Use ModuleFinder to get the modules this object requires. if path.endswith('.pyc') or path.endswith('.pyo'): path = path[:-1] # Just being defensive. if not os.path.exists(path): #pragma no cover logger.warning(" module path '%s' does not exist", path) continue if not os.path.isabs(path): path = os.path.join(os.getcwd(), path) finder_info = None try: finder_info = _DistCache.lookup(path) except KeyError: observer.analyze(path) finder = modulefinder.ModuleFinder( excludes=_get_distributions.excludes) try: finder.run_script(path) # Just being defensive. except Exception: #pragma no cover logger.exception("ModuleFinder for '%s'" % path) # Note dependency, even if for some reason ModuleFinder # can't handle it. name, dot, ext = os.path.basename(path).partition('.') finder_info = [(name, path)] else: finder_info = [] for name, module in finder.modules.items(): try: filename = module.__file__ # Just defensive, ModuleFinder should exclude these. except AttributeError: #pragma no cover filename = None finder_info.append((name, filename)) _DistCache.record(path, finder_info) else: logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, " reusing analysis of '%s'", path) if finder_info: _process_found_modules(py_dir, finder_info, modules, distributions, prefixes, local_modules, orphans, not_found, logger) _DistCache.save() distributions = sorted(distributions, key=lambda dist: dist.project_name) logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' required distributions:') for dist in distributions: logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, ' %s %s', dist.project_name, dist.version) return (distributions, local_modules, orphans) _get_distributions.excludes = None # Modules to exclude from analysis. def _get_standard_modules(): """ Return list of module names in the Python standard library. """ # Find library directories. if sys.platform == 'win32': #pragma no cover lib_dir = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'Lib') obj_dir = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'DLLs') obj_pattern = '*.dll' roots = [lib_dir, obj_dir] else: lib_dir = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'lib', 'python'+sys.version[0:3]) obj_dir = 'lib-dynload' obj_pattern = '*.so' roots = [lib_dir] # Find 'real' sys.prefix (not that of virtualenv). orig_prefix = None with open(os.path.join(lib_dir, 'orig-prefix.txt'), 'r') as inp: orig_prefix = inp.read() # Add to roots. if orig_prefix: for root in tuple(roots): roots.append(orig_prefix + root[len(sys.prefix):]) # Now scan for modules. excludes = set(sys.builtin_module_names) for root in roots: for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(root): if 'test' in dirnames: dirnames.remove('test') if dirpath == root: path = '' if 'site-packages' in dirnames: dirnames.remove('site-packages') else: path = dirpath[len(root)+1:] if path == obj_dir: path = '' for name in filenames: if fnmatch.fnmatch(name, '*.py*') or \ fnmatch.fnmatch(name, obj_pattern): name = os.path.join(path, name[:name.rfind('.')]) name = name.replace(os.sep, '.') if name.endswith('.__init__'): name = name[:name.rfind('.')] excludes.add(name) return list(excludes) def _process_egg(path, distributions, prefixes, logger): """ Update distributions and prefixes based on egg data. """ logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, " processing '%s'", path) dist = pkg_resources.Distribution.from_filename(path) distributions.add(dist) prefixes.add(path) for req in dist.requires(): logger.log(LOG_DEBUG2, " requires '%s'", req) dep = pkg_resources.get_distribution(req, logger) distributions.add(dep) loc = dep.location if loc.endswith('.egg') and loc not in prefixes: prefixes.add(loc) def _process_found_modules(py_dir, finder_info, modules, distributions, prefixes, local_modules, orphans, not_found, logger): """ Use ModuleFinder data to update distributions and local_modules. """ working_set = pkg_resources.WorkingSet() py_version = 'python%s' % sys.version[:3] for name, path in sorted(finder_info, key=lambda item: item[0]): if name in modules: continue if name != '__main__': modules.add(name) # Just being defensive, ModuleFinder should be excluding these. if not path: #pragma no cover continue orig_path = path if sys.platform == 'win32': # pragma no cover path = path.lower() dirpath = os.path.realpath(os.path.dirname(path)) if dirpath.startswith(py_dir): # May need to be copied later. local_modules.add(orig_path) continue # Skip modules in distributions we already know about. found = False for prefix in prefixes: if path.startswith(prefix): found = True break if found: continue if sys.platform == 'win32': # pragma no cover path = orig_path # Record distribution. for dist in working_set: loc = dist.location # Protect against a 'bare' location. if loc.endswith('site-packages') or loc.endswith(py_version): loc = os.path.join(loc, dist.project_name) if path.startswith(loc): distributions.add(dist) if loc.endswith('.egg'): prefixes.add(loc) break else: if dirpath not in not_found: if not dirpath.endswith('site-packages'): not_found.add(dirpath) path = dirpath # Verify name is valid. ModuleFinder can report a module # that was never successfully imported. try: __import__(name) # Difficult to cause this. except ImportError: #pragma no cover logger.debug('Skipping %s, not importable.' % name) else: if (name, path) not in orphans: logger.warning('No distribution found for %s.', name) orphans.add((name, path)) def _write_state_file(dst_dir, root, name, logger, observer): """ Write state of `root` and its children. Returns (filename, path). """ state_name = name+'.pickle' state_path = os.path.join(dst_dir, state_name) try: save(root, state_path, SAVE_CPICKLE, -1, logger) except Exception as exc: msg = "Can't save to '%s': %s" % (state_path, exc) observer.exception(msg) raise type(exc)(msg) return (state_name, state_path) def _write_loader_script(path, state_name, package, top): """ Write script used for loading object(s). """ if state_name.startswith(package): pkg_arg = '' else: pkg_arg = ", package='%s'" % package if top: top_arg = '' else: top_arg = ', top_obj=False' out = open(path, 'w') out.write("""\ import os import sys if not '.' in sys.path: sys.path.append('.') try: from openmdao.main.api import Component, SAVE_CPICKLE except ImportError: print 'No OpenMDAO distribution available.' if __name__ != '__main__': print 'You can unzip the egg to access the enclosed files.' print 'To get OpenMDAO, please visit openmdao.org' sys.exit(1) def load(**kwargs): '''Create object(s) from state file.''' return Component.load('%(name)s', SAVE_CPICKLE%(pkg)s%(top)s, **kwargs) def main(): '''Load state and run.''' model = load() model.run() if __name__ == '__main__': main() """ % {'name':state_name, 'pkg':pkg_arg, 'top':top_arg}) out.close() def _create_entry_map(entry_pts): """ Create entry point map from (group, name, loader) tuples. """ pkg_name = entry_pts[0][1] pkg_loader = entry_pts[0][2] ldattr = ['load'] entry_map = {} entry_group = {} entry_group['top'] = pkg_resources.EntryPoint('top', pkg_loader, ldattr) entry_map['openmdao.top'] = entry_group groups = set() for group, name, loader in entry_pts: groups.add(group) for grp in sorted(groups): entry_group = {} for group, name, loader in entry_pts: if group == grp: entry_group[name] = \ pkg_resources.EntryPoint(name, pkg_name+'.'+loader, ldattr) if entry_group: entry_map[grp] = entry_group return entry_map
[docs]def save(root, outstream, fmt=SAVE_CPICKLE, proto=-1, logger=None): """ Save the state of `root` and its children to an output stream (or filename). If `outstream` is a string, then it is used as a filename. The format can be supplied in case something other than :mod:`cPickle` is needed. For the :mod:`pickle` formats, a `proto` of -1 means use the highest protocol. root: object The root of the object tree to save. outstream: file or string Stream or filename to save to. fmt: int What format to save the object state in. proto: int What protocol to use when pickling. logger: Logger Used for recording progress, etc. """ logger = logger or NullLogger() if isinstance(outstream, basestring): if (fmt is SAVE_CPICKLE or fmt is SAVE_PICKLE) and proto != 0: mode = 'wb' else: mode = 'w' try: outstream = open(outstream, mode) except IOError as exc: raise type(exc)("Can't save to '%s': %s" % (outstream, exc.strerror)) if fmt is SAVE_CPICKLE: cPickle.dump(root, outstream, proto) elif fmt is SAVE_PICKLE: pickle.dump(root, outstream, proto) #elif fmt is SAVE_YAML: #yaml.dump(root, outstream) #elif fmt is SAVE_LIBYAML: ## Test machines have libyaml. #if _libyaml is False: #pragma no cover #logger.warning('libyaml not available, using yaml instead') #yaml.dump(root, outstream, Dumper=Dumper) else: raise RuntimeError("Can't save object using format '%s'" % fmt)
class _DistCache(object): """ Retains known required distributions for modules. """ _cache = None _dirty = False @staticmethod def lookup(path): """ Return known required distributions for `path`. """ if _DistCache._cache is None: _DistCache._load() return _DistCache._cache[_DistCache._key(path)] @staticmethod def record(path, dists): """ Record required distributions for `path`. """ _DistCache._cache[_DistCache._key(path)] = dists _DistCache._dirty = True @staticmethod def save(): """ Save required distributions data to file. """ if _DistCache._dirty: out = _DistCache._open('wb') cPickle.dump(_DistCache._cache, out, cPickle.HIGHEST_PROTOCOL) out.close() _DistCache._dirty = False @staticmethod def _key(path): """ Return ``(path, mod_time)``. """ path = os.path.realpath(path) info = os.stat(path) return (path, info.st_mtime) @staticmethod def _load(): """ Load required distributions data from file. """ _DistCache._cache = {} try: inp = _DistCache._open('rb') except Exception: return # Full test with coverage removes cache at start, so we won't get here. try: #pragma no cover _DistCache._cache = cPickle.load(inp) except Exception: #pragma no cover return finally: #pragma no cover inp.close() @staticmethod def _open(mode): """ Return opened file for '~/.openmdao/eggsaver.dat'. """ filename = \ os.path.expanduser(os.path.join('~', '.openmdao', 'eggsaver.dat')) dirname = os.path.dirname(filename) # Full test with coverage leaves directory intact. if not os.path.exists(dirname): #pragma no cover os.mkdir(dirname) return open(filename, mode)
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