Getting Started

This document attempts to explain the OpenMDAO development process and how a developer should interact with the various tools the project uses for version control, testing, deployment, etc. The source files for the Developer Guide can be found in the docs/dev-guide directory in the top level of your OpenMDAO source repository.

System Requirements

Working with OpenMDAO as a developer has some system requirements in addition to those mentioned in the System Requirements section of the User Guide. These requirements are described below.

We use Bazaar for version control. You’ll need it to access the OpenMDAO source repository. Installers for various platforms can be found here.
C/C++ and Fortran Compilers

Certain packages used in OpenMDAO contain Python extensions, meaning that they contain non-Python source code that must be compiled. Packages currently in use require either C/C++ or Fortran compilers.

  • Linux:

    • gcc

    • gfortran

      If they are not already on your system, they should be easily installable using your package manager. OpenMDAO currently builds and passes all tests with gcc/gfortran 4.1.2. We expect that later versions of gcc/gfortran 4.X should also work.

  • Mac OS X:

    • gcc

      Is available as part of Xcode, which can be found on the OS X distribution disks but typically is not installed by default. You can also download gcc and install it from source, although this is more prone to installation problems.

    • gfortran

      Binaries for gfortran are available here.

  • Windows:

    • Visual C++ 2008

      We use the Express version, but others (Professional, Standard) should work too. To get this software, go to the downloads page.

    • mingw32 (for Fortran and optionally as a Visual C++ replacement)

      Make sure to put the bin directory of the mingw32 install in your path. You can find mingw32 here.

      If you intend to use mingw32 as a Visual C++ replacement, you must do two things when installing it:

      • Check the C++ compiler installation option to get g++ (required to run OpenMDAO)

      • Create a file in your home directory called pydistutils.cfg that contains the following lines:


System Configuration

Some steps of the development process, e.g., downloading a branch of the source repository and downloading Python distributions, require network access. If you’re using Linux or Mac OS X and are behind an http proxy, you may have to set the http_proxy environment variable on your system for Bazaar and virtualenv to function properly. If you’re using Windows 7, please follow this link for information on configuring proxy settings.

Bazaar User Setup

If you have not previously used Bazaar on a particular machine where you intend to work with Bazaar repositories, you should run the whoami command so that Bazaar will know your email address. You need to supply your first and last name and your email address in the following way:

bzr whoami "Joe Cool <>"

This way, your contact information will be included whenever you commit to a repository on that machine.

Getting the Source Code

Before you can do any development work on OpenMDAO, you’ll need a copy of the source code. The source repository for the OpenMDAO project is available on Launchpad. You can get a copy of the repository by typing:

bzr branch lp:openmdao <branch_name>

where <branch_name> is the name you are giving to the top level directory of your branch repository. It’s a good idea to name branches based on ticket numbers in our bug tracker (Trac) using the form T<ticket_number>-<desc>, where ticket_number is the Trac ticket number and <desc> is a short description of the branch, for example, T0029-workflow_fix. Trac automatically assigns a ticket number when you submit a bug or request an enhancement. You can visit the OpenMDAO website to find out more about how we use Trac and about the OpenMDAO development process.

In any case, the name you give your branch should reflect the purpose of the branch to avoid confusion if you have multiple branches active at the same time. If you do not supply a <branch_name>, the name by default will be the last part of the source repository URI, which in this case is openmdao.

Creating the Virtual Environment

After you’ve created your branch, run python from the top directory of your branch to set up your development environment. (The devenv directory that is created is not part of the source repository.) The script will check the version of Python you are running. You must be running a version greater than or equal to 2.6 but less than 3.0. (To find out which Python version you are running, you can type python --version.)


On Windows, you need to run the installer from a command window that has the Visual Studio environment variables set. The easiest way to do this is to select the Visual Studio 2008 Command Prompt from the Visual Studio Tools menu under Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition in the Start menu. If you’re using something other than the Express edition, then the name of the Start menu option will be slightly different, i.e., replace “Express” with “Professional” or “Standard.”


Running populates your virtual Python environment with all of the packages that OpenMDAO depends upon and installs the openmdao namespace packages in your virtual Python environment as “develop” eggs so that you can make changes to the source code and immediately see the results without having to rebuild any distributions.

Activating the Virtual Environment

The next step is to activate your virtual Python environment. Change your directory to devenv.

On Linux or Mac OS X, you must be running the Bash shell. If you are in Bash, omit this step.


Next, type the following, making sure to include the ”.” in the command:

. bin/activate

Or, on Windows, type:


At this point, your devenv directory should contain the following subdirectories, unless you are on Windows. On Windows, the directory structure is slightly different, as noted below.

Contains Python and a number of other scripts that are associated with the Python packages that are installed in the virtual environment. On Windows, this directory is called Scripts.
Contains miscellaneous files that don’t fit in bin, lib, or include.
Contains Python C header files. If you are on Windows, you will not have this directory.
Contains Python standard library and installed modules.

After your virtual Python environment has been activated, you can add other distributions to the environment by using easy_install or pip in the same manner that you would add packages to the system level Python.

If you make doc changes and need to rebuild the docs, you can run openmdao_build_docs. Running openmdao_docs will display the documents in HTML in the default browser.

You can deactivate the environment by typing:


Layout of a Source Repository

The directory structure of your repository should look like this:

The directory containing source to be packaged into distributions that can be released separately from OpenMDAO. These distributions may or may not depend upon OpenMDAO. Distributions that have not yet been approved to be part of openmdao.lib can live here – as long as their license is compatible with NOSA. No proprietary code or GPL code can live in the OpenMDAO repository.
The directory containing the OpenMDAO virtual environment. Note that this is not part of the source repository. You will build it by running the script that sits at the top of the source repository.
The directory containing all user documentation for OpenMDAO. The documentation is broken up into several major documents, each found in a separate subdirectory, e.g., user-guide contains the User Guide, dev-guide contains the Developer Guide, and so on.
Python package containing examples of using OpenMDAO.
The directory containing miscellaneous scripts and configuration files used by OpenMDAO developers.
Python package containing scripts intended for developers and maintainers of openmdao to do things like build the docs or create a release. These scripts assume that the source repository is present, so this package is not distributed as part of an OpenMDAO release.
Python package containing source for the OpenMDAO standard library of modules.
Python package containing all infrastructure source for OpenMDAO.
Python package containing source for various OpenMDAO plugins used for testing.
Python package containing tools for doing unit conversion.
Python package containing source for various Python utility routines used by OpenMDAO developers.

Layout of a Namespace Package

OpenMDAO is split up into multiple Python packages, all under a top level package called openmdao. This top package, called a namespace package, is a sort of fake package that allows us to maintain and release our subpackages separately while appearing to the user to be all part of the same top level package. The following packages under the openmdao namespace have a similar directory layout: openmdao.main, openmdao.lib, openmdao.devtools, openmdao.util and openmdao.test. The layout is shown below.

The top level directory for the package denoted by <package>. This contains the script which is used to build and create a distribution for the package.
Contains all of the package source code.
Contains a special file and a <package> subdirectory.
Contains the actual source code, usually a bunch of Python files. There could be a standard Python package directory structure under this directory as well.
Contains unit tests for this package. These are executed by openmdao_test.